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A low point was reached in 1984, when less than 900 Soviet Jews were allowed to leave.
Numbers did not increase significantly until 1987, when over 8,000 were permitted to emigrate (National Conference on Soviet Jewry 31 July 1991; 1992b, 95).
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Henry Weinberg, who chairs the Canada-USSR Academic Dialogue on Jewish Themes, points to the involvement of intellectuals in the "vilification of Jews," government inaction in controlling the spread of anti-Semitism and the relative ineffectiveness of nascent human rights movements (. the great majority [of Soviet Jews] seek a better economic opportunity for themselves and particularly for their children, and have been motivated by fear that the opportunity to leave might not arise again" (1992, 13).
Emigrants have come from republics experiencing protracted civil strife, such as Moldova, Georgia and Tajikistan. While Israel is currently confronted with its own economic difficulties, the desire for a "better life" in a dynamic, capitalist society persists among many coming to Israel ( Sept. There is little indication that the Jews now leaving the former Soviet Union are motivated by a desire to return to their ancestral homeland or to embrace Judaism, as was the case in earlier emigrations ( for the years 1979-1982, such applications also "frequently" resulted in loss of employment.
To receive an invitation, a person must be Jewish according the Israeli Jan. Finally, the Israeli authorities issue emigrants an orange travel document, which is proof of actual Israeli citizenship, not merely the right to acquire it. One report quotes a community leader of Jerusalem's Armenian quarter who says he knows of several cases in which men have paid for marriages of convenience with Jewish women in order to be able to emigrate more easily ( ). The representative adds that he is not aware of any case where this had occurred due to "deceit or simply non-qualification" (Consulate General of Israel 11 Mar. Those whose citizenship is "downgraded" face one of two possible consequences.
In the latter half of 1992, Israel organized emergency airlifts of Jews from each of those republics as armed conflicts there intensified. The reports for 1980 add that those losing their jobs were "exposed to the danger of being prosecuted as 'parasites'," while the 1979 reports state that "some activists" were jailed or exiled for advocating the right to emigrate (1982, 1030; 1981, 895; 1980, 904; 1979, 686).
Those applying to leave had to have an invitation from what one analyst terms a "putative relative" in Israel.
The Six-Day War in 1967 significantly increased not only the amount of territory but also the number of Arabs under Israeli jurisdiction.
With the Arab birth rate far surpassing that of Israeli Jews, the government looked to immigration as a way to maintain the Jewish character of its state.Changes implemented in 1988 allowed them to keep their belongings and apartment until they had actually obtained an exit visa (, which was explicitly adopted by Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. At the time of writing, no corroboratory information was available on this question.According to the Union of Councils for Soviet Jews, because none of the "post-Soviet republics" adopted their own laws on emigration, they are implicitly using the May 1991 Soviet law as well (UCSJ 8 Jan. Most provisions of the law on exit and return did not come into force until January 1993. Former Soviet Jews no longer require an invitation from a "relative" in Israel in order to emigrate. After receiving the invitation from Israel, applicants who do not already have a Soviet or successor state passport must obtain one.The economic crisis has also led many Jews to seek opportunities in other countries.